The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology
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Felipe Rosa Machado (15 August 2014). "Argentina vs Bosnia, entrance plus Argentina Anthem". Archived from the original on 11 December 2021 – via YouTube.
Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology – Bryn Mawr The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology – Bryn Mawr
Similar salutes are used by guards of honour for non-police services (e.g. Toronto Fire Services, Toronto Transit Commission) during funerals or ceremonial events. Due to their close ties with the Canadian Armed Forces, the Royal Canadian Army Cadets, Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, and Royal Canadian Air Cadets are taught the Canadian Armed Forces salute. Ellis, Richard J. (2005). To the Flag: The Unlikely History of the Pledge of Allegiance. University Press of Kansas. pp.116–118. ISBN 978-0-7006-1521-6. Main article: Greeting The civilian Secretary General of NATO Joseph Luns tips his hat at a troop review in 1983, in lieu of a military salute. This (the full gesture is shown here) was by then becoming old-fashioned as a general social greeting, but had once been normal. In many militaries,  hand salutes are only given when a cover (protection for the head, usually a hat) is worn. The use of the fist as a salute by communists and antifascists is first evidenced in 1924, when it was adopted for the Communist Party of Germany's Roter Frontkämpferbund ("Alliance of Red Front-Fighters"). In reaction, the Nazi Party adopted the well-known Roman salute two years later.  The gesture of the raised fist was apparently known in the United States as well, and is seen in a photograph from a May Day march in New York City in 1936.  It is perhaps best known in this era from its use during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939, as a greeting by the Republican faction, and known as the " Popular Front salute" or the " anti-fascist salute".  Children preparing for evacuation during the Spanish Civil War (1930s), some giving the Republican salute. The Republicans showed a raised right fist whereas the Nationalists gave the Roman salute. Evans, Richard J. (2005). "The Rize of Nazism". The Coming of the Third Reich (reprint, illustrateded.). Penguin Group. pp.184–185. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8. The Story Behind the Blue Fist - Wisconsin State AFL-CIO Blog". typepad.com . Retrieved 16 January 2017. The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down and fingers extended straight and touching. Sometimes the arm is raised upward at an angle, sometimes it is held out parallel to the ground. A well known symbol of Fascism, it is commonly perceived to be based on a classical Roman custom.  p.2 but no known Roman work of art displays this salute, and no known Roman text describes it.  Thailand has a "Flag Code" that determines how the flag should be displayed and respected.   Section 7 of the "Flag Code" mandates that, upon seeing the raising or lowering of the flag at 08:00 and 18:00, general civilians should stand at attention and face the flag. In cases where only the National Anthem is heard, or one is in a vehicle, one should come to a complete stop until the National Anthem ends. Uniformed government employees are further governed by their own regulations which define whether to salute the Flag while in formation for the enlisted and the officers. The laws themselves do not specify punishment for not respecting or saluting the flag, only for using illegal flags. 
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The Bellamy salute is a palm-out salute created by James B. Upham as the gesture that was to accompany the American Pledge of Allegiance, whose text had been written by Francis Bellamy. It was also known as the " flag salute" during the period when it was used with the Pledge of Allegiance. Bellamy promoted the salute and it came to be associated with his name. Both the Pledge and its salute originated in 1892. Later, during the 1920s and 1930s, Italian fascists and Nazi Germans adopted a salute which was very similar, attributed to the Roman salute, a gesture that was popularly believed to have been used in ancient Rome.  This resulted in controversy over the use of the Bellamy salute in the United States. It was officially replaced by the hand-over-heart salute when Congress amended the Flag Code on December 22, 1942. Members of the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Space Force give salutes with heads both covered and uncovered, but saluting indoors is forbidden except when formally reporting to a superior officer or during an indoor ceremony. When outdoors, a head cover is to be worn at all times when wearing Army Combat Uniforms, but is not required when wearing physical training (PT) gear. The United States Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard do not salute when the head is uncovered or out of uniform. The classic "corps style" salute is often known as the "punch" type, where the saluting party will first punch their right arm straight forward from their body, arm parallel to the ground, hand in a fist, followed by the more traditional salute position with the right hand, left arm akimbo. Dropping the salute typically entails snapping the saluting hand to the side and clenching the fist, then dropping both arms to the sides. Gurley Flynn, Elizabeth (1977). Memories of the Industrial Workers of the World. New York: American Institute for Marxist Studies. p.6. In addition to the National Anthem, the Royal Anthem Sansoen Phra Barami is also given a similar respect. The laws regarding lèse majesté in Thailand do not contain punishment for merely refusing to stand or otherwise ignoring the Royal Anthem as it is not a direct threat against the royalty; it is, however, a serious criminal offense to make offensive gestures.a b NCO Preparatory Course, Vol. 1: Leadership. Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery, Alabama: Air University Press. 1985. pp.100–101. Ellis, Richard J. (2005). To the Flag: The Unlikely History of the Pledge of Allegiance. University Press of Kansas. pp.113–116. ISBN 978-0-7006-1521-6.
Ave Imperator, morituri te salutant - Wikipedia Ave Imperator, morituri te salutant - Wikipedia
a b Brilliant, Richard (1963). Gestures and Rank in Roman Art. New Haven: Published by the Academy. pp.62–78. Since the end of World War II, displaying the Nazi variant of the salute has been a criminal offence in Germany, Austria, Czechia, Slovakia, and Poland. Legal restrictions on its use in Italy are more nuanced and use there has generated controversy.   The gesture and its variations continue to be used in neo-fascist, neo-Nazi, and Falangist contexts. In the BBC TV science fiction comedy Red Dwarf, Arnold J. Rimmer continually performs an elaborate special salute that he has invented for the Space Corps, in spite of the fact that he is not a member of the Corps. It consists of extending the hand out in front of the body, palm down and rotating it about the wrist five times (to represent the five rings of the Space Corps), followed by bringing the hand close to the head with the palm facing out.
If the head is not covered or when the personnel is carrying a rifle on the shoulder the head salute is performed by nodding the head forward slightly while maintaining erect posture. A gesture called a wai is used in Thailand, where the hands are placed together palm to palm, approximately at nose level, while bowing. The wai is similar in form to the gesture referred to by the Japanese term gassho by Buddhists. In Thailand, men and women usually press two palms together and bow slightly while saying "Sawadee ka" (if female) or "Sawadee krap" (if male). Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, κυνέω". Perseus.tufts.edu . Retrieved 28 January 2014.